Tuesday, December 29, 2009

Versions in Different Languages

The Original or Adi Ramayan by Sage Valmiki has been adapted or translated into the various regional languages in India. Majority of them are not mere literal translation instead they all have their own distinguishing features.

Ramcharitmanas written by Tulsidas in the 16th century is the Ramayana version popular in North India.

In Urdu, it the Pothi Ramayana written in 17th century.

In Jammu and Kashmir, it is Kashmiri Ramavatara Charita written in 19th century.

In Punjab, it is the Ramavatara written in 17th century by Guru Gobind Singh.

In Gujarat, it is the Tulsi-krita Ramayana a Gujarati adaptation of Tulisdas Ramayana in 17th century by poet Premanand.

In Maharashtra, it is the Marathi Bhavartha Ramayana written by Eknath in the 16th century. There is also reference of Ramayana being translated into old Marathi during the 12th or 13th century.

In Assam, it is the Assamese Katha Ramayana or Kotha Ramayana in 15th century by Madhava Kandali.

In Bengal, it is the Bengali Krittivas Ramayan written by poet Krittivas in 15th century.

In Orissa, it is the Oriya Balramadasa Ramayana was adapted by Balarama Das in the 16th century.

In Andhra Pradesh, the Telugu Ramayan is known as Sri Ranganatha Ramayana and was adapted by Buddha Reddy.

In Karnataka, it is Kannada versions of the Ramayan – the Kumudendu Ramayana (Jain version) in 13th century and the Kumara-Valmiki Torave Ramayana in 16th century. There is another one titled Ramachandra Charita Purana written by Nagachandra during the 13th century.

In Tamil Nadu, it is the most popular Tamil Kamba Ramayana written by poet Kamban in the 12th century.

In Kerala, it is the Malayalam Adhyatma Ramayanam Kilipattu written by Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan in the 16th century.

Sanskrit versions:
  1. adbhuta ramayanam
  2. adbhutottara ramayanam
  3. adhyatma ramayanam
  4. agastya ramayanam
  5. agnivesa ramayanam
  6. anargha raghava ramayanam
  7. anand ramayanam
  8. atri ramayanam
  9. bal ramayana natakam
  10. bharat ramayanam
  11. bharadvaja ramayanam
  12. bhatti kavyam
  13. bhusundi ramayanam
  14. bibhisana ramayanam
  15. brahma ramayanam
  16. campu ramayanam
  17. deha ramayanam
  18. dharma ramayanam
  19. garuda ramayanam
  20. gautam ramayanam
  21. govinda ramayanam
  22. hanumad ramayanam
  23. hanumannatakam
  24. jamadagni ramayanam
  25. jaimini ramayanam
  26. janaki harana ramayanam
  27. jatayu ramayanam
  28. kapil ramayanam
  29. khetaketu ramayanam
  30. kraunca ramayanam
  31. krutivas ramayanam
  32. lalit ramcaritam
  33. lomasa ramayanam
  34. mahabharat-van parvatantargat ramakatha
  35. maha ramayanam
  36. mahavir carit natakam
  37. mahesvara ramayanam
  38. mangal ramayanam
  39. manu ramayanam
  40. naividheya ramayanam
  41. naradiya ramayanam
  42. naradokta ramayanam
  43. prasanna raghava natakam
  44. pulastya ramayanam
  45. raghuvamsa mahakavyam (by Kalidas)
  46. ramacarit cintamani
  47. ramasvamedham
  48. ramatapaniyopanisad
  49. ramesvara samhita
  50. ramnam mahatmyam
  51. ram raksastotram
  52. ram samhita
  53. saubhari ramayanam
  54. siva ramayanam
  55. skanda ramayanam
  56. sugriva ramayanam
  57. sumantra ramayanam
  58. sunand ramayanam
  59. surya ramayanam
  60. sutiksna ramayanam
  61. vasistha ramayanam
  62. viranci ramayanam
  63. visvamitra ramayanam
  64. vrutta ramayanam
  65. unmatta ramayanam
  66. uttara ramacarit natakam
  67. yajnavalkya ramayanam
  68. yogavasistham







  2. You missed Maithili in which following Ramayans are available
    • Chanda Jha (1831–1907)-Mithilabhasha Ramayan
    • Lal Das (1856–1921) - Rameshwarcharit ramayan
    Acharya ramlochan Sharan (1889–1971) His classic Maithili rendering of all the books written by Goswami Tulsidas is unique. He edited and published Sidhant Bhasya in four volumes on Ramacharitamanasa by Tulsidas which is permanent contribution to the spiritual literature. He was first to start printing Maithili books in Maithili script (Mithilakshar).
    Suryanayan Jha "sars's -ShreeSeetaRamcharitmanas is a recent publication
    and also
    Seetayan- baidyanath Mallik 'Bidhu' was conferred sahitya Akademi award in 1976
    and of
    Seetawatarn mahakavya of Pradeep maithiliputra.
    Let me inform that Valmiki himself wasa Maithil who wrote Ramayana in Mithila(in Champaran district presently in Bihar, near Tamsa river, though people confuse it with the Toms and say that was in UP/MP- my reference is from Bhartuy Sanskriti ka Vangmay, pubkished from Lucknow)

  3. Thank you Very much DR Ganesh Narsimhan for your wonderful information and DR Dhanakar Thakur for adding the info.

  4. I want to know about Maithili Ramayan written by Shri Chanda Jha. Is it available in market? If yes, than from where I can get it?

  5. This comment has been removed by the author.

  6. The above post is published even the before my first one could first post reads as under:
    Besides,the well known" Ranganaatha Ramayana","Bhaskara
    Ramayana","Molla Ramayana","Gopinatha Ramayana" & "Srimadraamayana
    Kalpa Vruksham",we have also:

    1)"Ramaabhyudayam"written by "Ayyalaraju Raamabhadrudu",one of the
    "Ashtadiggajaas" of Krishnadevaraaya's "Bhuvanavijayam"

    2)"Kattavaradaraaja Raamaayanam"by Varadaraaja who was a Raaja Kavi
    born in" Kshathriya" family

    3)"Raghunaatha Raamaayana"-by "Ragunaatha Bhupala";unfortunately,only
    "Balakaanda"is available,I learnt.

    4)"AcchaTenugu Raamaayana" by" Koochimanchi Thimmana"who had similar
    title of "Kavisaarvabhowma"as "Srinaatha" & had also done other famous
    literary works like "Rukmini Parinayam",Raajasekhara Vilaasamu"&
    "Neelaasundari Parinayamu"This is on various Ramayanas written in Telugu by various poets/writers exclusive of various "Sathakas" on the Lord SriRama.The list is certainly not exhaustive,but only am illustrative one culled from the speech of Jandhyala Papaiah Sastry way back in December 1976 or so. Kindly tell me as to how far I could succeed in my humble & earnest effort since writing on any aspect of Ramayana for a lay man like me is just a herculean task & a foolishly devilish attempt too.

    Besides,the well known" Ranganaatha Ramayana","Bhaskara
    Ramayana","Molla Ramayana","Gopinatha Ramayana" & "Srimadraamayana
    Kalpa Vruksham",we have also:

    1)"Ramaabhyudayam"written by "Ayyalaraju Raamabhadrudu",one of the
    "Ashtadiggajaas" of Krishnadevaraaya's "Bhuvanavijayam"

    2)"Kattavaradaraaja Raamaayanam"by Varadaraaja who was a Raaja Kavi
    born in" Kshathriya" family

    3)"Raghunaatha Raamaayana"-by "Ragunaatha Bhupala";unfortunately,only
    "Balakaanda"is available,I learnt.

    5)"Andhra Vaalmeeki Ramaayanamu" by "Vaavikolanu Subba Rao" gaaru
    which is exactly on the lines of "Vaalmiki's original Sanskrit

    6)"Andhra Sreemadraamayanamu" by Sri "Janamanchi Sheshendra Sharma"
    gaaru who was conferred with the title of "Abhinavaandhra Vaalmiki"

    7) "Dharmasaara Raamaayanamu" by the same Janamanchi Sheshendra
    Sharma.It is said that this is a great literary work detailing
    various" Dharmas" of a man as a brother,friend,son, master,
    husband,servant a lucid way.

    8)"Srikrishna Raamaayanamu" by "Sreepaada Krishna Murthy" gaaru

    9)"Govinda Raamaayanamu"by "Aathmakoori Govindaachaaryulu" gaaru

    ""10)"Subhadraa Raamaayanamu" by Srimathi "Seeram Subhadrayaamba" garu

    11)"Saraswathee Raamaayanamu" by "Srimathi Chebrolu Saraswathee Devi" gaaru

    12)"Maanikonda Raamaayanamu"by Sri "Maanikonda Satyanaaraayana Saastry
    "gaaru who named his work as "Telugu Valmeekam"

    13) "Yogaanandaandhra Raamaayanamu" by Sri Chillarige Yoagaanandaiah

    14)" Daasaradhi Vilaasamu" by Sri "Kotthapalli Acchaiah" gaaru;this
    was dedicated to Lord Venkateshwara

  7. (Contd from my above post):
    15) "Raamoadayamu" by Sri "Rangaya Kavi" garu

    16) "Mallemaala Raamaayanamu" by Cine poet Sri "Mallemaala Sundara
    Rami" Reddy" garu

    17) "Janapriya Raamaayana" by Sri "Puttaparthi Naaraayanaacharyulu" garu

    18) "Dhanakudhara Raamaayanamu" by Sri "Dhanakudharam Venkataacharyulu" garu

    I also understand that,Sri "Gadiyaaram Venkata Shesha Sastry" gaaru
    also was writing a "Raamaayana".I do not know at what stage he left it
    & how it was named as.It is also said tha "Thirupathi Venkata Kavulu"
    too had written Raamaayanam up to "Sundara Kaanda"& one Sri Kopalle
    Siva Kameshwara Rao too was writing a Raamaayana.

    And as most of us know,there are two noted "Uttara Raamaayanas-one""by
    Sri "Thikkana Somayaagi"garu "with the title "Nirvachanoatthara
    Raamaayanamu" and the other by Sri" Kankanti Paapa Raaju"garu.There
    was also one Sri "Ghattu Venkata Raama Krishna Kavi"who authored the
    story of "Uttara Raamaayana & titled it as "Pattabhiraamaayanam"

    On the other side,we have "Upaakhyaana Raamaayanas" also, contained in
    Aranya Parva part of "Andhramahaabhaarathaa" authored by
    "Yerrapragada" as a narration by Naarada to Dharmaraaja AND the other
    in ninth skandha of "Andhra Bhagavatham" written by "Pothana",with a
    subtitle as "Sreeraama Katha"These apart,we have the story of
    "Uttararaamaayana "contained in "Jaimini Bhaaratham"of "Pillalamarri
    Pina Veerabhadra Kavi".The episode of capturing the" Ahwametha
    Hayam"by"Lava & Kusha" is described beautifully in this.

    Coming to tranlslations into Telugu,the "Champoo Raamaayana" written
    by "Bhoja Deva"was translated nicely by poets like "Allamaraaju
    Rangasaayi",Bulusu Seethaaraama Kavi",Poosapaati
    Ranganaayakaamaathyudu","Buddhavarapu Mahaadevudu" &"Jayanthi Raamayya
    Panthulu"."Ananda Raamaayana",the Sanskrit Raamaayana famous for its
    episode descriptions was translated into Telugu poetry by Sri "Gundu
    Lakshmana Kavi" while the translation as prose of the same was done by
    Sri "Noothalapaati Pera Raju" garu

    The "Aaddhyaathma Raamaayana" written in Sanskrit as narration by Lord
    "Siva" to his consort "Paarvathi" was translated into Telugu
    independently by as many as 16 poets of whom S/Sri " Kaanaadam Peddana
    Somayaaji","Kancharla Sharabha Kavi" & "Maamidanna Subhadraamba" are
    notable.One Mr "Munipalli Subrahmanya Kavi gaaru" translated it into
    Telugu as "Keerthanaas" also;these are the popular Raamaayana

    Yet another form of a translated Raamaayana is "Yatthashloka
    Thaathparya Raamaayanam" which was got done around 1798 by the
    provincial ruler of Gadwal-called "Somabhoopaala"by six different
    poets of his court-one each for all the six Kaandaas of Raamaayana.

    "Maalikaa Raamaayanam" is another garland of stories of Raama
    beautifully made up with one" Vruttha" & one "Praasa" for each of the
    six "Kaandaas" by six poets-S/Shri" Aaukundi Venkata
    Shastry","Panthula Lakshmi Naaraayana Shastry",Devagupthaapu Venkata
    Kavi Raaju","Chinthalpoodi Sanyaasi Rao","Moolaa Peranna Shastry" and
    "Ufmaaka Naaraayana Moorthy".

  8. (Contd from previous post):
    There is yet another dimension of Raamaayana writing i.e.translation
    from other languages.Prominent among these are of :

    a) Tulasidaas's "Sriraamacharith Maanas" by "Shri Bhaagavathula
    Narasimha Sharma" and Shri "Mylavarapu Sooryanaaraayana Moorthy"in
    poetic forms & by S/Shri "Yeluripaati Laksmi Saraswathi",
    "Nelanoothala Paarvathee Krishna Moorthy" & Shri "Sreenivaasa Sharma"
    in prose forms.Shir "Keshavatheertha Swaamy"& Shri "Paateelu Thimmaa
    Reddy" had jointly authored the same naming it as "Shreeraamachaitha
    Maanasamu" in "Dwipada" form.

    b) Siddhendra Yogi's "Vichithra Raamaayanam" had wrtiten in Utkal
    (Oriya),by Shri "Donkaa Gopinaatha Kavi" in prose form around 1670;in
    acoordance with thatS/Shri "Tumuraada Paapa Kavi","Narasimhadevara
    Venkata Shaastry","Kommaajee Somanaatha Shilpaachaaryudu",& "Velpoori
    Venkata Kavi"authored poetic forms.

    c) "Kambaa's Tamil Raamaayan-"Kamba Raamaayan" by Shri Poothalapattu
    Sreeraamulu Reddy garu in poetic form dedicated to the Lord Sreeraama
    Himself.And this Kamba,the author of Tamil Raamaayan was the great
    grandson of Raajraaja Narendra.The peculiarity of Kamba Raamayan is
    that it included certain new items-say like love between Seethaa &
    Raama even before their marriage,Ravanaa's eloping Seetha by uprooting
    the "Parnashaala" ,Sugreeva's treating "Thaara" as mother NOT as
    wife-which were not in" Vaalmiki Raamaayana""""

    Apart from the above known poetic forms,there are several prose
    versions of Raamaayana in Telugu. Prominent among these are those by
    S/Shri Vaavilla Raamaswaamy Saastry gaaru ," Devaraajasudhee
    garu","Nori Gurulinga Shastry" gaaru,"Dodda Venkata Raami
    Reddy"gaaru,"Saraswathula Subba Raama Saastry" gaaru,"Modeparthy
    Gunnaiah" gaaru etc who wrote in pure grammatic but easy style AND by
    "Sri Srinivaasa Shiromani" gaaru,"Sreepaada Subrahmanya Shaastry"
    gaaru & "Ushasree"gaaru in beautiful spoken language(Shishta
    Vyaavahaareekam).Addition to these in the recent past is "Anudina
    Raamaayanam"authored by Shri "Yilapaavuloori Paandu Rangaa Rao" gaaru
    who is none other than father of our state election commissioner I V
    Subba Rao gaaru.It is a wonderful literary piece.

  9. (Contd from previous post):
    Every Hindu admits that Raamaayana is the most respectable epic &
    "Seethaaraamulu " the most adorable & ideal couple for Telugu people
    who do not start any writing even,without coiling the word
    "Sreeraama"The banks of Godavary in AP are blessed & sanctified with
    the holy touch of the feet of "Seethaaraamaa" Perhaps,that is the
    reason as to why Lord Rama is embedded so deep in the hearts of Telugu
    people.It may not be exaggeration if I say that there is no single
    village in AP without the temple of Lord Raamaa & there are not so
    many "Raamaayanas'in any other Indian languages than in Telugu.When I
    was a child,almost all the Telangana villages were agog with the
    echoes of the songs of what were known in those days "Chiruthala
    Raamaayanam"during the nights.

    I am sure that there would be many more Raamaayanas written by several
    people.The light of "Raamaayana",thus gets spread to all the four
    sides & to all the Indian languages.It has intruded into all the
    continents & subcontinents of the world going spree all around.After
    all,the utterance of the Creator-Lord "Brahma"-
    "Yaavath Stthaasyanthi Girayah,Sarithascha Maheeyase
    Thaavad Raamaayana Kattha,Lokeshu Pracharishyathi"

    (That as long as mountains exist,rivers flow,the story of Raama
    continues to flourish in this great universe is undeniable).

    My salutations to Lord Raamaa & prostrations to HIS lotus feet.

    "Sreeraamachandra Charanau Sharanam Prapadye"!!!

    With regards,

    Mallaiah Anchoori
    September 24, 2010 12:16 AM


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  12. Ramayana was translated to assamese in 14th century not in 15th century